Types of monkey -

Variegated or Brown Spider Monkeys

brown spider monkey

There are two recognised subspecies of the variegated or brown spider monkey. Ateles hybridus brunneus Gray, 1870 is restricted to Colombia, captivating among the lower Ríos Cauca and Magdalena in the Departments of Bolívar, Antioquia and Caldas. Ateles h. hybridus transpires east from the right bank of the Río Magdalena spreading into western Venezuela. Both subspecies are Severely Threatened because of loss of habitat, hunting and the pet industry.

They are particularly susceptible to hunting because of their enormous size, gentle procreative speed - single offspring at 3-4 year gaps - and normally small population masses of spider monkeys. Overall, A. hybridus has experienced habitat damage, and just 0.67% of the lasting A. hybridus supply is secure. Much of its variety has been changed to farms for agriculture and cattle.

Ateles h. brunneus has a minor geographic variety in an area where forest loss, deprivation and destruction is prevalent. At the moment, the lasting populations are enclosed by human beings intensifying the risk further. Just 9% of their possible variety is left over as constant forest. Surveys have been completed to establish the mass of this subspecies in Maceo and Puerto Berrio (Antioquia). Only one group of eight creatures has been found in an area of 1,000 up to now.

Nevertheless, a sanctuary is still around in the Serranía San Lucas in southern Bolívar, which is recognised as a crucial site for the creation of a national park. A safeguarded area is essential for this subspecies, which could incorporate two extra endangered common primates: the white-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus, and the woolly monkey, Lagothrix lugens.

Ateles hybridus can be located in six zoos in Colombia as a minimum, which presents difficulties of excess animals. This species is enduring pet trade too; approximately 20 repossessed creatures are dwelling in four rescue centres and need to be put somewhere else at present. Surveys need to be conducted, and conservation measures need to be put in place, as a matter of urgency. An ex situ breeding program is also necessary to maintain healthy and viable captive populations.


  • Cordero-Rodriguez, G. A. and F. Biord. 2001. Distribution and conservation of the spider monkey (Ateles hybridus) in the coastal range of northern Venezuela. Neotrop. Primates 9: 8-11.
  • Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservación Internacional, Serie de Guías Tropicales de Campo, Conservación Internacional Colombia., Bogota, Colombia.
  • Kellogg, R. and E. A. Goldman. 1944. Review of the spider monkeys. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 96: 1-45.
  • Konstant, W. R., R. A. Mittermeier and S. D. Nash. 1985. Spider monkeys in captivity and in the wild. Primate Conserv. (5): 82-109.

Roloway Guenon

Cercopithecus diana roloway
Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

There are two subspecies of Cercopithecus Diana Arboreal monkeys that dwell in the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa (Grubb et al. 2003). They are both incredibly good looking! The roloway subspecies is differentiated by its large white brow line, lengthy white beard and yellow thighs. Groves (2001) believes the two subspecies to be adequately different to be considered as complete species. The roloway, which is recognised from Ghana and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, is additionally threatened with death, from the two types. Truthfully, it is among the three greatest threatened monkeys of the Upper Guinea forest block and a constantly pursuid by bushmeat traders (Oates 1996). Whilst primatologists have hunted the forests of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire for proof of living red colobus, they have noted the constant decay of the roloway guenon and white-naped mangabey, which appear to be located in most of the same forests (Oates 2006).

In Ghana, roloway guenons have been gradually declining from exposed and safeguarded areas like the Bia National Park and the monkey is approaching extinction in that country, if it has not already vanished. Some current surveys have not been able to locate roloways in any reserves in western Ghana. There is a possibility that the Ankasa Conservation Area holds a small number of roloways (Magnuson 2003), although a wildlife guard stated in 2006 that he has not seen the monkey for quite a lot of years. Meticulously surveys in 2008 of Ankasa, Bia Conservation Areas and Cape Three Points Forest Reserve by West African Primate Conservation Action did not find any roloways; however, invalid reports of their continuous existence at Ankasa were obtained (S. Gatti pers. comm.). A detailed survey of the Dadieso Forest Reserve, where the monkey was reported in the past, must be of great importance.

In Côte d'Ivoire, the Roloway guenon is unknown from any safe guarded regions and the monkey's position is as terrible. Surveys made approximately ten years ago detailed roloways in two forests, the Yaya Forest Reserve and the Tanoé forest nextto the Ehy Lagoon. Hunters described tiny numbers of roloways in the Parc National des Iles Ehotilé too (Koné and Akpatou 2005). Late surveys of eighteen areas conducted during 2004 and 2006 verified the existence of roloways just in the Tanoé forest. This confirmation proposes that the roloway monkey might have been eradicated from a minimum of two forest areas - Parc National des Iles Ehotilé, Yaya Forest Reserve - in the last decade and that the guenon's division in Côte d'Ivoire is limited to the Tanoé forest at present (Koné and Akpatou 2005). In 2007, indigenous informers stated the existence of roloways in the Dassioko, Niouniourou, Port Gautier, Mabi and Yaya forest reserves; nevertheless, surveys of these regions produced no absolute proof of their existence (G. Campbell pers. comm.). The Tanoé forest could be the only remaining sanctuary if roloways have been eradicated from Ghana's Ankasa. This damp forest harbours one of the limited existing populations of whitenaped mangabeys in Côte d'Ivoire and, maybe, a few of Miss Waldron's red colobus. The Tanoé forest is under direct threat from a large palm oil company (PALMCI) and several organizations (CEPA, WAPCA) are petitioning in opposition to the company and have supported local awareness campaigns (Koné 2008). the protection of the Tanoé forest ought to be a top conservation priority as it is possibly the final sanctuary for roloways, whitenaped mangabeys, and Miss Waldron's red colobus


  • Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
  • Grubb, P., T. M. Butynski, J. F. Oates, S. K. Bearder, T. R. Disotell, C. P. Groves and T. T. Struhsaker. 2003. An assessment of the diversity of African primates. International Journal of Primatology 24: 1301-1357.
  • Koné, I. and K. B. Akpatou.2005. Recherche en Côte d'Ivoire de trois singes gravement menaces d'extinction. CEPA Magazine 12: 11-13.
  • Magnuson, L. 2003. Final Brief: Ecology and Conservation of the Roloway Monkey in Ghana. Unpublished report, Wildlife Division of Ghana, Forestry Commission, Ghana.
  • Oates, J. F. 2006. Primate Conservation in the Forests of Western Ghana: Field Survey Results, 2005-2006. Report to the Wildlife Division, Forestry Commission, Ghana.

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